罗素《中国之问题》摘句

华夏书院   2014-08-01 10:54  

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伯特兰·罗素(1872—1970)是二十世纪英国哲学家、数学家、逻辑学家、历史学家,无神论或者不可知论者,也是上世纪西方最著名、影响最大的学者和和平主义社会活动家之一。1920年9月,梁启超邀请罗素到中国讲学。1950年,罗素获得诺贝尔文学奖,以表彰其“多样且重要的作品,持续不断的追求人道主义理想和思想自由”。

以下罗素著作之摘句及其汉译,很可能是梁漱溟仅有的“译作”,似颇为少见。所说“摘句并译出备用”,即拟于撰写《旁观者清——记英国哲人罗素五十年前预见到我国的光明前途》一文时(1972年)采用。此文收入《中国——理性之国》一书,置于全书正文之前(见《梁漱溟全集》卷四)。

一、在中国各阶层(意谓不论贫富贵贱)的人都喜欢说笑,从不放弃一个逗笑的机会。

All clases in China are found of laughter and never miss a chance of a joke.(原书189页)

二、他们的古音乐有些很优美,曲调优雅使人仅仅听到而止(似指古琴)。在艺术上他们爱好幽静(恬淡),在生活上则要合乎理性。

Their old music, some of which is very beautiful, makes so little noise that one can only just hear it.In art they aim at being exquisite, and in life at being reasonable.(189页)

三、外国人在中国生活得愈久,就愈喜爱中国。

…so that the foreigners, who have lived longest in China are who love the Chinese best.(190页)

四、孔子和其后学所发展者是纯讲习伦理的一个学派,没有宗教性和独断教诫,亦就不发生出一个有权力的教会机关和引致于迫害异教徒。它确实成功地开展出其整个民族所有的雍容气度和礼让习俗。礼让之风在中国非徒然为例行格套而已,即在曾一无先例的场合亦行之真切。此非限于某一社会阶层为然也,亦且见于卑微的苦力之间。

His (Confucius)system, as developed by his followers, is one of pure ethics, without religious dogma; it has not given rise to a powerful priesthood, and it has not led to persecution. It certainly has succeeded in producing a whole nation possessed of exquisite manners and perfect courtesy. Nor is Chinese courtesy merely conventional; it is quite as reliable in situations for which no precedent has been provided. And it is not confined to one class; it exists even in the humblest coolie.(190页)

五、欧洲人每以为中国人的谦恭礼让是懦弱,实则正是他的力量之所在;他即以此力量卒于制胜其历史上过去的那些外族征服者。

Europeans often regard this as weakness, but it is really strength, the strength by which the Chinese have hitherto conquered all their conquerors.(190页)

六、在基督教和回教正统的教诫上,从不容许人崇信其他宗教;但在中国此不相容性却不见有。一个人可以既信佛教又为儒士,彼此之间两不相妨。

The dogmas of Christianity and Mohammedanism, in their orthodox forms, are so framed that no man can accept both.But in China this incompatibility does not exist; a man may be both a Buddist and a Confucius because nothing in either is incompatibility with the other.(191页)

七、他们说:宗教虽多,道理却一。

…they say“religions are many, but reason is one”.(196~197页)

漱按:此虽未免笼统含混可笑,却见出其直接地信理,间接地信教。

八、中国实际上没有宗教的,此可概括其全人口,非独其社会上层为然也。其所有者只是颇为明确的伦理规范,既不严峻怕人,亦且从不存有“罪孽”观念。

China is practically destitute of religion, not only in the upper classes, but throughout the population. There is a very definite ethical code, but it is not fierce or persecuting, and does not contain the notion“sin”.(192页)

九、虽则中国文化之内过去缺少科学,但从不存在任何敌视科学之意。因此在其普及科学知识的路上不会有如往者欧洲教会之为阻碍的那样。

Although Chinese civilization has hitherto been deficient in science, it never contained anything hostile to science, and therefore the spread of scientific knowledge encounters no such obstacles as the Church put in its way in Europe.(193页)

十、西方文化的明显特点,我以为就在科学方法;中国文化的明显特点则是他们对人生意义的正确认识。吾人希望此二者应当逐渐结合在一起。

The distinctive merit of our civilization, I should say, is the scientific method; the distinctive merit of the Chinee a just conception of the ends of life. It is these two that one must hope to see gradually uniting.(194页)

十一、如其说,世界上有“不屑于战争”的民族吗,那就是中国人了。中国人的态度天然地雍容和蔼,以礼待人,亦望人报之以礼。如其让中国人选择的话,他们将成为世界上最强大的国家,却只要自由而不要霸权。

If any nation in the world could ever be“too proud to fight”,that nation would be China. The natural Chinese attitude is one of tolerance and friendliness, showing courtesy and expecting it in return. If the Chinese chose, they could be the most powerful nation in the world. But they only desire freedom, not domination.(197页)

十二、人们总以为我们对中国人最大的善举就是能够使他们亦得以达成如同我们自己这个模样。我认为这是莫大的错误。在我看来,一般中国人较之一般的英国人要快活些,即便他是一个贫苦人也罢。其所以然者,盖在世界观上这一民族较比吾人更富有人情和高雅些。

Chinese, we are convinced that the kindest thing we can do to them is to make them like ourselves. I believe this to be a profound mistake. It seemed to me that the average Chinaman, even if he is miscerably poor, is happier than the average Englishman, and is happier because the nation is built upon a more humane and civilized outlook than our own.(197页)

十三、我不否认中国人在和西方相反的方向上走得太偏、太远,但正为此之故,我想东西两方的接触将于彼此都会产生好结果。他们将得以向我们学取那些切合实际效用所必不可少的东西,而我们则向他们学习到某些内心智慧——这是当其他古老民族均先后衰亡以去,而他们卒赖之以独存至今者。

I do not deny that the Chinese go too far in the other direction; but for that very reason I think contact between East and West is likely to be fruitful to both parties. They may learn from us the indispensable minimum of practical efficiency, and we may learn from them something of that contemplative wisdom which has enabled them to persist while all the other nations of antiquity have perished.(197~198页)

十四、标准的西方人总想尽可能地改善其环境,殆无休止,而标准的中国人则尽可能地安于所遇,温文地享受其处境。这是中国人和说英语的人之间最根本的不同点。

The typical Westerner wishes to be the cause of as many changes as possible in his environment; the typical Chinaman wishes to enjoy as much and as delicately as possible. This difference is at the bottom of most of the contrast between China and the English speaking world.(202页)

十五、中国当其接触工业文明后,其所夙有的某些高尚品德或犹将保存不失,其中有些恰为当前世界之所急切需要者。对这些风格品质我将以其心平气和置于第一位。所谓心平气和,即指其总求解决纷争于公理正义之上,而不愿用武力是已。

But perhaps something may be preserved, something of the ethical qualities in which China is supreme, and which the modern world most desperately needs. Among these qualities, I place first the pacific temper, which seeks to settle disputes on grounds of justice rather than by force.(212~213页)

十六、中国是全世界上所仅存的一个古老文明社会而不像是一个政治实体(国家)。

China is much less a political entity than a civilization—the only one that has survived from ancient times.(208页)

漱按:我曾说,过去的中国是融国家于社会,以天下而兼国家的。又说,老中国是不像国家的国家,以不要政治为政治的。此即古语所云“端拱无为”是也。

十七、我认为世界上只有中国人真正相信智慧比任何宝贵的东西更宝贵。

I think they are the only people in the world who quite genuinely believe that wisdom is more precious than rubies.(225页)

漱按:此处智慧wisdom一词应即指内心智慧contemplative wisdom而说,参看第十三则自明。

十八、中国从其资源和其人口来说,完全可能继美国之后成为世界最强大的国家。

China, by her resources and her population, is capable of being the greatest Power in the world after the United States.(241页)

十九、外国人无须乎对中国怀抱什么恐惧心理,虽然中国是一个人口巨大和资源丰富的国家。

…and that foreign nations have had no need to fear China, in spite of its immense population and resources.(192页)

廿、我写此书意在表明中国民族从一种意义上是优越过我们的;即因此义中国若竟为求其民族生存而降低到我们的水平,则于他们和我们都是不幸的。

I have tried to show in this book that the Chinese are, in certain ways, superior to us, and it would not be good either for them or for us if, in these ways, they had to descend to our level in order to preserve their existence as a nation.(241页)

廿一、中国的独立自主最终意义不在其自身,而宁在其为西方科学技术与中国夙有品德两相结合创开新局;若达不到此目的,纵然取得其政治独立抑何足贵耶?

Independence is to be sought, not as an end in itself, but as a means towards a new blend of Western skill with the traditional Chinese virtues. If this end is not achieved, political independence will have little value.(242页)

廿二、如此大业(按:指社会生产大发达)信得建成,其必须于中国传统道德有巨大变化,以发展公共精神取代其家族伦理,以其致力于私人事业者转而为忠于公务而努力。

But if this is to be done successfully, it will require a great change in Chinese morals, a development of public spirit in place of the family ethic, a transference to the public service of that honesty which already exists in private business, and a degree of energy which is at present rare.(247页)

廿三、倘若中国革新家在使得中国力足自卫时,便适度而止,不进一步向外求胜,既得安然自处便转移其为列强所迫致的实利主义作为(译注:似指军备竞赛等)而致力于科学与艺术,建成良好的社会经济体系,中国于是乃真尽其在世界上所应有的职责,为人类当前极紧要时期,开出一全新希望。此即我想奉以勉励于青年中国者。此希望是能够实现的,正为其必可能实现,中国在一切爱重人类者来说,应受到极高的尊崇。

But if Chinese reformers can have the moderation to stop when they have made China capable of self defence, and to abstain from the further step of foreign conquest; if, when they have become safe at home, they can turn aside from the materialistic activities imposed by the Powers, and devote their freedom to science and art and the inauguration of a better economic system—then China will have played the part in the world for which she is fitted, and will have given to mankind as a whole new hope in the moment of greatest need. It is this hope that I wish to see inspiring Young China. This hope is realizable; and because it is realizable, China deserves a foremost place in the esteem of every lover of mankind.(251~252页)

廿四、在中国所有各阶层的人较比我所熟悉的其他国人更爱欢笑;他们对任何事物都有欣赏之趣,往往一个严肃的争论却化为一个笑语而告终结。

The Chinese, of all classes, are more laughter loving than any other race with which I am acquainted;they find amusement in everything, and a dispute can always be softened by a joke.(200页)

(本文选自梁培宽·梁漱溟全集)

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责任编辑:徐糕糕 关键词: 罗素 中国之问题 梁漱溟


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